Grammatical bases
Verb, Subject and Object Indicators

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Subject-Indicator / Two kinds of Object-Indicators /Two kinds of Verb-symbols /
Examples of various d-Verb phrases /
A predicate/verb with modifications /
Compounded verb symbols / Verb-bases for answering questions

In an EL sentence, word order is free for subject (S), verb (V) and object (O) to make it easier and even for global communications. Instead, EL uses indicators as bellow to show which part of a sentence. English users might feel them as unnecessary; but this way is natural for visual thinking. E.g.: at anytime, the first person = (when it's plural, the plural base is compounded on top); and you need not to memorize the declensions of pronouns such as I, my, me, we, our, us. Also the structure of a sentence becomes visually clear by this way.


When the subject is at the beginning of a sentence or just after a special sentence indicator (for interrogative, imperative or exclamatory), this subject indicator is not necessary.
When the predicate, object or some modification comes before the subject of a sentence, is put right before that subject. This base has the image of something 'important' or 'main' in bases overlays. But wherever you see this single base, it always indicates the subject.

When the subject of the interrogative sentence is the point of its question, you can answer, using only this indicator and the noun of the answer.

Question: “Who did this?” Answer: (I did)
((I) corresponds to who is clear according to .)

(Accusative case indicator) and (Objective case indicator of -verb)

These two bases indicate different types of objective in a sentence, unrelated to each original image, only when they are used as single bases.
The EL verb system is unique and different from English or other languages; and the objective-indicators also follow the verb system, classifying into two kinds. But they are not as direct and indirect objects in English. 
The examples of EL sentences with these indicators are in the verb section below.

shows that the following ideogram/phrase is a direct object of any type of verb, as “him” in “I see him” and "the picture" in "I show him the picture"

shows that the following ideogram/phrase is the objective of -verb (close to causative verb in English). In the sentence, the subject lets/makes the –attached object do the action of the verb or become into the condition shown by the verb.

(gd) and (ge) : Two types of Verb-symbols

An EL verb/predicate always includes one of these verb symbols; so wherever you see them in, the group of ideograms is a verb/verb-related symbol or the predicate of a sentence.

An EL ideogram shows a noun or some kind of situation; also the bases and fundamental ideograms are simplified picture-like shapes or at least visually understandable shapes. A verb symbol change an ideogram or a phrase into a verb/predicate in a particular way, attaching in front of them.

EL classifies the verb symbols into two types to make clear to which the verb situation/action actually belongs, to the subject or to the object of the sentence. They are not for transitive and intransitive verbs as English classifies. EL verb types are
The following are the reasons of the classification:

1) Visually easy to understand
2) Small amount of simple ideograms systematically increase ability of expressions; and one can save his/her effort for memorization.
3) To make the context clear about whose action or situation is shown by the verb phrase.
4) Not only human centered, but also nature/things centered thoughts can go, and the custom might help to imagine others and co-work for our common environment. 

: The shape reminds us of some energy to stand up on its own.

-attached verb is used to form a verb meaning that the subject becomes into the condition or does the action shown by the following ideogram/phrase. The verb can be both transitive and intransitive. Since this type of verb is a subject's own action, it shapes like this.

: The shape reminds us of some pressure from above, symbolizing other's will or power to the action/condition.

-attached verb is for forming a kind of causative verb in English, but the nuance is a little different to more natural way. This verb corresponds to -object to form a predicate; and represent that the subject lets the -object act or makes into the condition shown by the verb phrase, or the subject make the condition that the object acts as the verb shows.

E.g.: itself means "eye" as a noun. Joining a verb symbol and makes various verbs, adding the meaning of "(someone's) eyes act". According to the types of verb, the owner of the eyes are different in their meaning.
(1) : I see it. 
(Because of the -verb, (eye action) is mine (the subject is “I”).

(2) : I let you see it. >> I show it to you.
(Because of the -verb, is yours. (: the object of -verb “you”)

(3) : It is seen as strong. >> It looks strong.
(This verb symbol is passive, with : received; and this sentence does not mention about whose eyes, so we feel this as a general view. : large power/strong)

The English words see, show and look, are in completely different spells, also originally are set as verb; and the definition of see doesn't care so much about with whose eyes. But these actions are all related to the eyes, so EL expresses all of these verbs by using  (eye-ideogram) as (1) (the subject's) eyes which function is seeing acts = see, (2) let the object's eyes act (to see something) = show, and (3) be perceived by (general) eyes = look. When you think with picture-like symbols, you must naturally mind whose eyes they are, who the actual user of the tool is, and who really become the situation, in your imagination. That's why two types of verbs are prepared in EL.
Derivatives of  are also available adding or compounding another ideogram:

or : stare (the subject’s eyes work facing to a target)
or : search (the subject’s eyes seek)
; or : read (the subject’s eyes recognize)
: contact with eyes (the subject’s eyes contact …)
All these eyes are belong to the subject of these predicates, Because all are -verbs.

These ways are applicable to systematically make verbs with the ideograms of other body organs and tools. More examples come later.

An ideogram for a condition or an action makes verbs more naturally with verb symbols

: become strong (vi.)
: strengthen (vt. make something strong)
: I work. (The subject become into “working situation”)
: You use me. (The subject let the object(: after ) work)

Diagrams about the relations between a verb and who actually acts:
: subject-indicator, , : object indicators, (it/that)

The left: The subject (itself) move/work.
The right: The subject make the object move/work.

The left: The subject‘s eyes act for the direct object: "The subject sees it (direct object)."
The Right: The subject makes the indirect object‘s "eyes act" (see) it : "
The subject shows it to the indirect object."

Examples of various -verbs/-verb phrases

The way to get the meaning of a verb phrase {a verb symbol + a base or a fundamental ideogram} is ruled according to each basic definition. The EL dictionary shows the meaning of each base when it's used as a verb. The rule is applied to get meanings of verbs with more complex symbols using those bases. 

+ an ideogram/phrase of a situation, action or movement:
The verbs in this case mean that the subject becomes the situation shown by the ideogram/phrase.

: become equal/even (: equality,)
: move ( an intransitive verb) (: a move)
: dance (vi ) ( { move, energy-opened, action}: a dance/dances)
: flow (vi.) ({ waves, heading}: a flow/flows)
: This wine is made taking three years.
(: this (pointing at a close thing), { beverage, energy-opened}: wine/alcoholic drink,
: made (this ideogram means “made-situation”, so means is made without taking the passive voice verb symbol.) : with/joining, : year as a period.)

shape is upside down of "nature/natural." Why does it mean "(human) made" instead of "making"? It's because the expressions of various products simpler. Also there is another reason through the EL philosophy. English usually expresses things as human-centered thoughts. But wines and things can’t be produced without many other elements of nature. It is to feel the nature blessing in our daily lives, having a vision from the side of nature and things, putting them as the subject of a sentence.

: I make these fruits into wine taking three years.
(: “the condition to be wine” in this case.
: these (plural of ), : fruit/fruits,
There is an empty space between and the preposition . If not, the phrase: "taking three years" modifies instead of the predicate verb: "make wine".

+ a fundamental organ/apparatus/tool

A living organ has more than one function, but usually a particular one is more distinctive than others. Eyes are mainly for seeing and ears are for hearing. Hands and feet do many things. In EL, an ideogram of a fundamental organ is used to form a verb meaning that the main function of the organ act/works. 

(rationally) think (vi.) ( brain (the important thing under the scull) 
: I stand. (vi.)
(: I, leg/legs (picture-like fundamental symbol; the organ to support the body to stand), (vi.) stand (support its own body as the subject's action), or to support its direct object with the subject's action. (This is when the verb accompanies a direct object:  + a noun)
: you step.
: you, : foot/feet (by the shape), (vi.) step 
Among many actions and functions of legs/feet, the above settings are ruled as the main action of basic legs/feet-verb.
To express other actions of legs or feet, you apply another or more base/bases to each symbol.

Like these, you can easily find which phrase is the verb/predicate in a sentence.
Also depending on the verb symbol and the object indicator (, or both), the meaning of a predicate becomes clear, even if the symbol of action is just a noun.

: I stand. (vi.)
I stand becoming one of your leg (vi.) for you. (as a metaphor for a half important support)
: I support you. (I become legs supporting you)
Since is in front of you works as a transitive verb, support in English.
: I stand it. (vt.)/I make it stand.
(This legs are not the subject's, but belonging to the object. In this case the subject might help/order it (maybe a chair or an organization) to stand, but it has to use its own legs.)

Sometimes an ideogram of an organ of other animals or plants is also used to form a verb, symbolizing the human matter related to its function.

: threaten
: horn (by the shape); and this symbolic function is iYL “threat”
Human doesn't have horns, but this verb can be used for human/human society's action.)

+ a fundamental organ/tool and a situation/action or a base overlay of those combination

Here are examples of more specific actions of feet and legs.

When and plural ideograms form a verb, the action character always (the key meaning of the verb) locates at the end, as long as the phrase does not include a preposition.

or {feet go}: walk (as the fundamental setting)
or {feet go slow}: walk slowly, stroll
or {legs go}: run (as the fundamental setting)
or {leg go fast}: run at full speed, dash

* Both feet and legs are actually needed to walk and to run. But the EL foot-ideogram is set for “walk,” and leg-ideogram is set for “run” in these combinations.

Tools are also involved to form a verb too, just as an extension of the body part.

or : analyze with computer
({artificial(38), brain}: computer, {separation, recognition}: analysis
The computer belongs to the subject of this predicate and works by the subject)

: play music with strings
(The player is the subject of this predicate, and the tool:
strings works as an extension part (tool) of the subject.
{ space, line}: strings
{ sound, balance, energy-opened}: music )

A predicate/verb with modifications using , , and

(preposition mark)
The phrase led by this mark is a modification phrase. It usually modifies the symbol/phrase in front of this mark. When you want to strongly stress the modification of a predicate, you can put it at the beginning of the sentence.
  or (walk slowly/stroll) can be shown in other ways:
 : (slowly walk) The modification slowly is in front of the predicate).
: (slowly walk) The modification slowly is in the back.
: (slowly I walk.) When slowly  is stressed

forms various prepositions compounded with another base or a bases overlay. The examples are in the dictionary [gc]

-verb with -object
In this case the verb works like a transitive with -direct object.

: I read it. (The subject recognize it with his/her eyes)

-verb with -object

: I let him run.
(run) is the action of (him{ pronoun, out/male}: the indirect object of the verb: indicates that)

: I make my computer analyze this.
( I, my, computer analyze this
In this case, the analysis is not by me but my computer.)
: I analyze this by my computer.
{function/work, preposition}: by/with/using)
If I feel my computer as a part of my body/brain, I can make this sentence even shorter:
: I computer-analyze this.

: This, I computer-analyze.
(You need to put the subject indicator when putting the subject back from the front for emphasizing the object.)

*Direct English translations sound strange; but please think visually.


Verb symbols can be compounded with another base to change details of a verb, as a tense such as future, past, progressive form, continuation, experienced etc., or a nature such as negative, prohibition, passive, causative, possibility, wish, want, etc.

A multi-element compounded verb symbol is also available. The gd and ge page in the EL Dictionary shows many examples of compounded verb symbols.
If needed, more can be created.

For changing a verb into a noun
Compounding (an affair, intangible matter) on top of the verb symbol, the verb turns into a noun. Verbs of past, future or other occasion can be changed into a noun too by just compounding on top of the kind of verb symbol.

: What he’s wishing for a long time will come true.
( { , verb, long-continuation }: continuously doing thing,
{ a heart, jwant}: wish,
{ verb, future when compounded with verb}: will be/do,
(true): will come true

More examples are in the Dictionary site.

To modify another ideogram/phrase by a verb phrase:
Compound the preposition mark (gc) on top of the verb symbol, or put it in front of a verb symbol.

: the people running at that place.

{ person, plural}: people, : running (modifying the front ideogram/phrase),
preposition mark, { that (pointing a far place), place}: at that place/there
: the people, who had been running for a long time
{ verb symbol, past tense, long continuation}

Verb bases or for answering questions

For a question about the verb part of an sentence, wondering if it's right or not, EL simply answers using only the same verb base, or in the inquiry sentence for “yes,”
and or for “no”, denying the verb symbol.

Q: : Are you going to run?
A: : Yes, I am. , or : No, I’m not.
( : the front indicator of an inquiry sentence, : you (the subject in this sentence),
{ question, heading, verb symbol}: the verb (be going to) is the point of this question.

In English, you usually answer with a subject and an auxiliary verb matching to the inquiry sentence, but EL simplifies the answer as the verb base in the inquiry or denied that base, even if the verb symbol is multi-compounded.

Q: : Did you make her laugh again?
( {e-verb symbol, past tense, plural times}: did something repeatedly
The inquiry indicator and the position of show the questioner is wondering if the predicate is true or not.
{ face as the fundamental ideogram, energy-open}: laugh )

A: : Yes I did
: No I didn’t, and he did.
The answers can omit even the tense like these examples.

The inquiry sentence is an affirmative or a negative,
if the answer is affirmative, use or ,
and if it’s negative, the answer is or , depending on the inquiry verb.

Q: . : Isn't that real?
A: : Yes, it is. : No, it’s not. It's a fiction.
( : it/that in a topic, { matter, truth}: real
{ { existence, verb}: be, denied}: be not
{ matter, created, truth}: fiction,
The subject of last additional sentence is omitted, since the questioner knows it.)

This simple answering system is planed for easy hand signing and clarity between cultures.
(Sometimes yes and no answers create a problem between traditional languages.
E.g.: the answer “Yes” for “Don't you know this?” means “I don't know” in Japanese.)

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