Using Grammatical Bases

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Additional mark for Hyphen
Additional mark for Switching Meanings of a symbol
The bases for pause, punctuation and period

Verb symbols and the Subject and the Object indicators
Conjunction and Preposition

EL uses eleven grammar bases:

Among them, six of {ga-gf} are only for grammatical usage;
having one or more grammatical function/functions, but not relating to any images/meanings.
The other five: are from ordinary bases; and each has its image/images when compounded with another ideogram. But each base itself works for one or more grammatical function/functions,
ignoring their own images. Smaller shapes were chosen for grammatical bases except verb bases.
Because they work for showing relations between meanings, and when the sizes are different from other characters,
the structure of a sentence would be caught easily.

Additional mark for Hyphen


* Before was used for "gf" symbolizing compounding, but for more convenience of EL typing, the shape was renewed into 1/4 width of the frame. The new shape is like hyphen, because the function is the same to hyphen.

This basis is always in the single form; and works as “bond” between symbols/meanings
to show a base overlay without actual compounding.

(the picture-like ideogram for insect ) is also shown as braking down into its elemental bases.
This way is useful for a beginner to learn fundamental picture-like symbols, or for hand signing and vocal communications.
(cicada) is also shown as (insect)-(tree)
(grasshopper) is also shown as (insect)-(grass)

* In an EL phrase, usually the left character modifies the right one, unless including a grammatical mark
to change that order. But for showing elements of a base overlay with the hyphen , the main element
first would be more easily understood

Additional mark for Switching Meaning of a symbol

ga is always compounded with another character, to switch the meaning:
from the picture-based meaning to the meaning as the gathering of its element bases.

sprout (picture-like ideogram)
( with ga): artificial/human made( )-plant()

The bases for pause , punctuation and period

Being between characters/phrases/sentences bound by brackets, it punctuates them.
is the base to show the image of dot/dots in a base overlay.
A dot can visually and clearly separate characters,
so no necessary to keep a space on the both sides when it works for punctuation.

In continuous ideograms, the front one modifies the next,
but when this basis is between them, both ideograms are just equally listed.

That (in the topic) branch, stem and root were parts of one tree.
Perhaps the English translation can be as above, but the nuance is like
“Each of these branch, stem, root was a part of one tree."

: A group of two or more of this base shows a pause; and if the numbers are larger, the pause is subjectively longer.
This ending shows some imagination echoes of the sentence/phrase or some silence before starting the next sentence.

is also used for forming indications to get attention, for an interrogative,
a request/imperative and an exclamatory sentences; also for the ending of a wondering sentence.
See the Idiomatic expressions section for more about it.

This base works as a period of a sentence, having an empty space next, in the same way as English.
The base has the image of a (measuring) unit in a base overlay, so as the single form, it shows the period of a unit of sentence at the end.
also is used for decimal point with numerals.
See the examples of those usages at 32 in the EL dictionary.
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