Diacritics: Additional Symbols for Manners of Articulation
(revised on June 01,2005)

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# These bases are the additional symbols to change the manner of articulation
of an original phoneme (vowel or consonant), directly compounding with that symbol,
or arranging to next to it.
The latter cases are for tones, accents and rhythms such as staccato, length and vibration etc.
Linguists call 'diacritics' for the similar marks (usually IPA has much smaller marks for this purpose).

# EL uses compounding consonant symbols for places of articulation;
see the consonant section or the technical term section.

# An diacritical base have a function related to its meaning in the definition system.

# Related to each meaning, some bases work with a phoneme and also with an additional symbol:

makes the tongue lowered and the opening of a vowel wider
when it compounded with a vowel base; and when it compounded with a tone symbol,
it increases the high pitch tone into much higher, because the meaning of is much in the definition system.

The following explanations are about symbols and the function/functions.
The parts of explanations in (( )) is for when each base works with an additional symbol,
not directly being compounded with a phoneme.
Otherwise it explains when they work compounded with a phoneme.
The words after > are linguistic technical terms.

(07): The shape is an obtuse angle, as the symbol of much;
to indicate the opening is more than the original vowel with the lowered tongue. > lowered
((to indicate an increase in : the high pitch or : the low pitch or : the length of the voice))

(08): Small angle shape as the symbol of little;
to indicate the opening is less than the original vowel with the raised tongue > raised
(( to indicate an decrease in : the high pitch or : the low pitch or : the length of the voice ))

(20): Indicating outward;
to make the articulation position one step outward (to the front ) > advanced
(( in a pitch tone symbols, to indicate returning to the ordinary level
from (17) (higher) or (18) (lower) level, because of the base overlay shape))

(19): Indicating inward ;
to make the articulation position one step inward (backward) > retracted
((in a pitch tone symbols, to indicate starting the pitch tone
from the ordinary level and change into or by the combinations))

(60): The shape is not symmetrical on the left and the right;
to indicate that the pronunciation is by using only one side (the left or the right)
of the lips or the [l] tongue. (Africans sometimes use this type of clicks for mimics as a frog sound etc.)

(64): Pushing forward shape, symbolizes emphasized in the definition system;
this base emphasizes the function of the other character in a base overlay in each way:
To make the lips more round with : round lips > more rounded
To make [u] lips more pointed and out thrust
To work for the width, the widest or the narrowest with or
(opening wider or less with the raised tongue or the lowered tongue )
> the most lowered or the most raised
With (20) or (19) (outer or inner), it changes the articulation position
more outward/inward > the most advanced or the most retracted
((Independently represents to put the emphasized accent on its left next phoneme. > primary stress
Also the base overlay {n2,64}(the number 2 and 64) is used for the second accent
on the left next character > secondary stress
The symbol compounded with (17) shows strong and high,
the symbol with (18) shows strongly low in the tone system))

(63): returning backward shape; symbolizes weak or restrained in the definition system;
It restrains the function of the other base in a base overlay contrary to :
To work as a half rounded diacritic with (round lips vowel) > less rounded
To work for the opening width little wider or little narrower with the lowered
or the raised tongues, compounding with or > little lowered or little raised
Compounding with a vowel, makes any stretches reduce,
and the vowel becomes a little closer to the mid central vowel from the original.
With (20) or (19) (outer or inner ), it makes the articulation position
little outer or little inner > little advanced or little retracted
Compounding with a plosive or fricative consonant, it loosens the plosive or friction,
so the sound becomes like a vowel through a narrow opening > approximant
((Independently represents to pronounce with a restrained voice for the left character.
The combination with (17) shows weak and high,
the combination with (18) shows weak and low in the pitch tone system))

(44): The shape looks like being going to spread from the center to outer, and symbolizes a plosive;
It shows a glottal plosive:
a vowel is compounded with this to show the outer articulation when the glottal plosive happens.
Compounding with another consonant, it makes the consonant into a plosive at the place.
{12,44} works as the diacritic to indicate an affricate.

(12): A serrated shape symbolizes friction
To change a consonant into a fricative:
when a phoneme includes , it's pronounced as a fricative,
except a symbol with (affricate: combination of plosive and fricative)

(32): This works as a period of a sentence and a symbol of a unit in the definition system.
A phoneme includes indicates to be a single syllable. > Syllable break
When plural vowels (two or three) are continues,
they pronounced as one syllable with the vowel glide between each.
They are called diphthongs (two) or triphthongs.
When this base is combined with the former vowel of two,
the vowels are pronounced as two syllables.
Even some of consonants can be compounded with to show it's a single syllable.
e.g. : ‘I’ in English, : (love) in Japanese
((The independent usage of is for a period in the phonetic system,
when recording some pronunciations of sentences in a local language.))

(03): The shape is extended in a line;
to indicate that the left next phoneme (a vowel, a semivowel or a fricative) is long > long
{03,07} shows a much long sound
Repeating plural , or also shows very long, visually.
{08(less), 03(long)} shows a half long sound > half long
(03) can be compounded with a vowel/semivowel/fricative, when it's simple enough.
When complicated, it is arranged separately right after the phoneme to see easier.
((When it is used among or with tone characters, it shows that the tone works long.))

(01): This shape looks separating the left side and the right side;
((This base is used only as single; never compounded with others in the phonetic system.
Between syllables, it cuts the sounds from both of the characters on either side,
and it works like a staccato.
Using more than two of this character shows a blank time/pause (a pronunciation blank) there;
the amount of , as or relates to the time length as feeling.))

(11): This shape looks like stopping a current of characters in a writing,
and is used for the symbol of stopping the air stream.
It shows a stop of the air stream at the articulation place of a plosive, compounding with it.
This base itself represents no voice by closing the glottis. > glottal stop
The following three sounds are similar, perhaps all written as "ah!" in English, but are a little different:
: [a] + glottal stop,
(glottal plosive with [a] mouth),
: [a] + velar stop

(17): this shape is pointing up;
to indicate making the tongue root advanced > advanced tongue root
((To indicate the high pitch tone ))

(18): this shape is pointing down
to indicate making the tongue root retracted > retracted tongue root
((To indicate the low pitch tone ))
Compounding / and (19)/ (20)/ (63)/ (64 ) and (03),
various pitch tones are expressed. Pitch tones are very important for Chinese language.
Also expressing some rhythm is possible, using (01), (03 ) , (63 ) , (64) and (11).
Examples of various pitch tones are here: Don't you imagine some melodies following symbols?

(41): Shaking shape; this base represents movement in the definition system;
to indicate quick shaking and trill of a phonetic organ
{40,41}: trill of lips > bilabial trill,
{14,20,41}: the [l] tongue tip extends out of front teeth and shakes.
(This is not used in a language, but Arabic people yell and hurrah in this way.)
{36,41}: curled tongue trill > alveolar trill (rr of perro (dog) in Spanish )
{45,41}[R]: uvular trill (in many words with [r] in French )
((When (usually as compounded with (long)) follows after a vowel or a semivowel,
the vowel is pronounced with shaking of all oral and pharyngeal cavities , as you hear in singing.))

(05): The symbol of denying in the definition system;
overlaying on a voiced sound, it changes the sound into a voiceless sound. (deny-voice- function)
> diacritic for voiceless

(15): The shape of two eyes or two dots to be compared symbolizes to be recognizable with voice;
overlaying with a voiceless sound, it change the sound into the voiced sound. > voiced

(06): Another pair character of ; a symbol of opposite;
it changes the direction of the air stream into opposite.
A symbol including this is pronounced by the inhale air stream.

(27): Doubled edge shaped character;
this is for separation of the components in a base overlay.
The base with this is regarded to work with the left symbol at the same time.
Usually a vocal expression at a single time has to be shown as a single symbol in EL.
But if it's too complicated, it is possible to separate the expression.
E.g. a nasal sound and a click or an ejective can be produced
using two different air systems at the same time, and the sound is represented
as two separated symbols, compounding " with the second one.
: Bilabial Oral Click with a nasal voice together.
N.B. The symbols for Pitch tones and long work for the left next sound by themselves without .

Written by Yoshiko (2005)

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